How to write an essay on literature

In the recommendations for the topics 8-9, we discussed the meaning of the word “essay”. To the essay as the main work on the literature in theexam strict requirements. Read them carefully and remember. 

Requirements for writing: 

The content of the essay must exactly match the selected topic. 
The writing should be based on knowledge of the text. 
 writing should demonstrate knowledge of all works of the school curriculum on the chosen topic. 
In the essay
 you must show a strict and accurate knowledge of the literary terminology that you use. If you cite a term that does not have an unambiguous definition in science (for example, a symbol), you should specifically state what you understand by it. 
There should be no factual mistakes in the composition: you should not confuse and change the names of the characters (not Ekaterina or Katya, the heroine of Ostrovsky’s The Thunderstorm, but Katerina; not Andrei from Tolstoy, in War and Peace, but Prince Andrei) events, their time and place, artistic details and details, mistakes in quoting, dating, etc. are unacceptable 
The content of the essay must have a strictly ordered and well traceable logic. The basic elements of the composition of the composition must be preserved: the introduction (“entry into the topic”), the main part (main ideas and their proof), conclusion (results on the topic, conclusions, “exit” from the topic). 
All your thoughts (ideas, theses, statements, etc.) must be proved. The only argument is the artistic text. References to drafts, variants of works, diaries of writers, memoirs, as well as literary works and criticism are considered as accompanying material. 
Quotes must be absolutely accurate and properly executed. 
The style of the composition should be one. You must match the style and content of the essay.
Avoid familiarity with respect to the authors in question: writers cannot be called Leo Nikolayevich (about Tolstoy), Marina Ivanovna (about Tsvetaeva), Nikolai Vasilyevich (about Gogol), etc.: this is not about your neighbors in the stairwell, and about the authors of works of art, and compliance with reader ethics is a must! 
The presence of the epigraph is not a requirement for the composition. 
Note! Working on the essay, including the analysis of the episode, make a plan of reasoning. The problem plan is preferable, since it allows you to immediately formulate the problem questions, the detailed and demonstrative answers to which will form the main part of your work. 

Types of topics in literature: 

To cope with the essay, you need to know what kinds of topics there are and how to work on a topic of one kind or another. 

So, distinguish the following types of topics: 

  • distressed
  • comparative 
  • overview, 
  • topics related to the disclosure of the writer’s skills, 
  • analysis of a literary work (lyrics, drama, epic works), 
  • episode analysis 
  • essay on quotation, 
  • mixed 
  • free. 

Problem topics are those whose main content is the posing of questions (problems) of a scientific, aesthetic or ethical nature. The wording of such topics often includes the term “problem” itself. For example: “The problem of past, present and future in N. Gogol’s poem” Dead Souls “The tragedy of satire ME Saltykov-Shchedrin”; “Will the heroes of Dostoevsky make the heroes of Tolstoy happy?” 
If the wording of such a topic begins with the word “problem”, then begin the work on the topic itself with an explanation of this concept. In such topics one should not answer questions, but ask them, while looking for mandatory compliance with those questions asked by the authors or dictated by time. 
These topics require mandatory strict logic of presentation. 

Comparative topics that is, assuming a comparison (comparison) of two or more objects on the grounds defined by the wording. In the formulation of such topics are usually included several objects connected by the union “and”. For example: Father and son Kirsanov in I.Turgenev’s novel “Fathers and Sons”. 
In a comparative topic, equal attention should be paid to all the objects of study stated in the formulation. 
Comparative topics necessarily imply a strict sequence of presentation and the presence of obligatory general conclusions and conclusions arising from the comparison. 

Review topics have a wide coverage of the material; quite often they assume only its description or reproductive presentation (roughly speaking, retelling). Sometimes the content of such topics is a consideration of changes in the object over time (within different cultural epochs). In this case, the topic includes comparative elements. For example: “The Image of Petersburg in the Russian Lyrics of the Silver Age”. “The image of war in the book of L. Tolstoy” War and Peace “Dark Kingdom” in A.Ostrovsky’s drama “Thunderstorm”. “Moscow and Muscovites in the Image of M. Bulgakov”. 
These topics suggest not so much the depth of study of the material, as the width of its scope and the ability to see the object “from above”, noting all its main features in their development.